In the second half of the nineteen sixties, Yugoslavia terminated its nuclear programme. However, the operation of the nuclear research reactor at a major institute until 1983 generated spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste (RAW) that needed to be properly managed. Efforts started in 2002, based on a decision to decommission the research reactor. The Public Company Nuclear Facilities of Serbia (PCNFS), established in 2009 for the management of all nuclear facilities in Serbia, continues all activities previously managed by the institute. In the past, the institute's Material Science Laboratory (MSL) was involved in nuclear fuel-related activities, and certain quantities of nuclear materials remained in its premises, stored in poor conditions and causing permanent concern. Liquid waste is stored in four underground liquid waste tanks. Hangar H3 (for the storage of solid RAW) and Secure Storage (for the storage of spent sealed radioactive sources) are operational and managed by PCNFS.

The current intervention supports the cooperation of Serbia with the EU under the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC), which has supported numerous projects on nuclear and radiation safety. This intervention aims to enhance the capacity of the nuclear regulatory authority and the site to implement measures for minimizing environmental hazards posed by the deteriorating status of RAW and storage facilities. It is considered a continuation of previous interventions that supported the improvement of inventory and control of movements of nuclear materials at the site. Additionally, it supports the further development of the Serbian Radiation and Nuclear Safety and Security Directorate in regulating radiation protection, nuclear safety, and RAW management, as well as the decommissioning of selected facilities at the site under the responsibility of PCNFS and the institute.